Neurophthalmology (Double Vision, Headache, Migraines, etc.) - Treatments

Diplopia is double vision caused by a problem with the muscles that control the eye or the nerves that stimulate those muscles.

Headaches are one of the most common health complaints. They are caused by a variety of factors and can be divided into the following groups: 

Microvascular cranial nerve palsy (MCNP) is one of the most common causes of double vision in older people. It occurs more often in patients with diabetes and high blood pressure and is often referred to as a “diabetic” palsy.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that causes your body to produce antibodies that mistakenly attack the myelin sheath protecting your nerve tissue. This chronic central nervous system disorder damages the nerves and causes the gradual loss of muscle control, strength, and vision.

Optic neuritis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the optic nerve. This nerve is the pathway that carries impulses from the retina in the back of the eye to the brain and enables the brain to interpret the impulses as images. If the nerves are damaged, vision is greatly affected.

A stroke is a life-threatening emergency in which the blood supply to the brain is interrupted or severely reduced, depriving it of oxygen and killing brain cells. Quick treatment could save your life and minimize damage to your brain. 

Giant cell arteritis (GCA), also known as temporal arteritis, is a chronic inflammation of the lining of medium- and large-sized arteries. The cause of giant cell arteritis is unknown. Left untreated it can lead to blindness. Treatment should be initiated as soon as the diagnosis is suspected. 

Ischemic optic neuropathy, a condition caused by restricted blood flow to the optic nerve, is the sudden loss of vision in one or sometimes both eyes. It primarily affects the elderly. There are two forms of ischemic optic neuropathy, caused by differing underlying conditions. 

Migraine headache is a common neurological condition that occurs in about 20% of the population and in 50% of women. It is not clear how a migraine works, but it is believed that the basic cause is an abnormality of serotonin, which is a chemical used by the brain cells. During a migraine, changes in serotonin levels cause the blood vessels in the brain to constrict. This decreases oxygen supply in the brain. In rare cases, a stroke is possible.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder characterized by weakness of the muscles under your voluntary control. MG is caused by a communication breakdown between your nerves and muscles due to an autoimmune condition that has damaged receptors on your muscles.

Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a condition in which the pressure from the cerebral spinal fluid inside your head is elevated. This can cause problems such as headaches, blurred vision, or loss of vision. The condition is known as pseudotumor cerebri because symptoms can mimic those of an intracranial tumor.

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